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Citations

Learn how to cite resources using the right style for your major!

The Chicago Style is a method of documenting sources in a research paper derived from the house style of the University of Chicago Press. The information on this handout is derived from the 16th edition of The Chicago Manual of Style. 

Text Citations (Author-Date Style)

When working information into a research paper which is directly derived from another source, it is necessary to insert a parenthetical reference within the body of the paper. Please note that text citations should only be used when incorporating the Author-Date style of citation preferred by the physical, natural, and social sciences. For more examples, see The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition.

Author’s Name in Text (Direct Quotation)

Miele (1993, 276) found that the “the ‘placebo effect,’ which had been verified in previous studies, disappeared when [only the first group’s] behaviors were studied in this manner.”

Author’s Name in Reference (Direct Quotation)

She stated, “The ‘placebo effect,’ . . . disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner” (Miele 1993, 276), but she did not clarify which behaviors were studied.

Text Citation (not Direct Quotation)

Recent literature has examined long-run price drifts following initial public offerings (Ritter 1991; Loughran and Ritter 1995).

Notes and Bibliography / Author-Date

The Chicago Manual states that the Notes and Bibliography system of citation is favored by writers in literature, the arts, and history and that the Author-Date system is preferred by writers in the physical, natural, and social sciences and is recommended for works in those areas. Chicago recommends the use of the long form of the Notes format the first time a work is cited, then the shortened version for subsequent citations. If a full bibliography is included at the end of the work, then Chicago recommends only using the shortened version for footnotes. Bibliographic (B) and both long and shortened Notes (N) formats as well as Author-Date style Reference List format (A-D) are included below. 

Notes and Bibliography Examples

[NOTE: Include URL only if URL is shortened and stable, otherwise include DOI, accession number, or any other identifying number listed in database citation.]

[NOTE: Only add the access date if a publication and/or revision date cannot be ascertained.]

B: Maiben, William. “A Tombeau for John Lennon, 1940-1980.” Perspectives of New Music 19, nos. 1/2 (Autumn 1980-Summer 1981): 530-45. http://www.jstor.org/stable/83216.

Howard, David H. “Hospital Quality and Selective Contracting: Evidence from Kidney Transplantation.” Forum for Health Economics and Policy 11, no. 2 (2008). PubMed Central (PMC2600561).

 Novak, William J. “The Myth of the ‘Weak’ American State.” American Historical Review 113: 752- 72. doi: 10.1086/ahr.113.3.752.

N: 8. William Maiben, “A Tombeau for John Lennon, 1940-1980,” Perspectives of New Music 19, no. 1/2 (Autumn 1980-Summer 1981): 533, http://www.jstor.org/stable/83216.

N: 13. Maiben, “Tombeau for John Lennon,” 540.

A-D: Maiben, William. 1981. “A Tombeau for John Lennon, 1940-1980.” Perspectives of New Music 19(1/2): 530-45. http://www.jstor.org/stable/83216. 

B: Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees. “Evanston Public Library Strategic Plan, 2000-2010: A Decade of Outreach.” Evanston Public Library. Accessed May 21, 2015. http://www.epl.org/library/strategic-plan-00.html.

Microsoft Corporation. “WD2000: Visual Basic Macro to Assign Clipboard Text to a String Variable.” Revision 1.3. Microsoft Help and Support. Last modified November 23, 2014. http://support.microsoft.com/kb/212730.

N: 10. Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees, “Evanston Public Library Strategic Plan, 2000- 2010: A Decade of Outreach,” Evanston Public Library, accessed May 21, 2015, http://www.epl.org/library/strategic-plan-00.html.

N: 15. Evanston Public Library, “Strategic Plan,” 2015

A-D: Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees. 2015. “Evanston Public Library Strategic Plan, 2000- 2010: A Decade of Outreach.” Evanston Public Library. Accessed May 21. http://www.epl.org/library/strategic-plan-00.html. 

B: Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, 2006.

N: 1. Michael Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006), 99-100.

N: 6. Pollan, Omnivore’s Dilemma, 3.

A-D: Pollan, Michael. 2006. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin.

B: Jacobs, Sue-Ellen, Wesley Thomas, and Sabine Lang. Two-Spirit People: Native American Gender Identity, Sexuality, and Spirituality. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997.

N: 2. Sue-Ellen Jacobs, Wesley Thomas, and Sabine Lang. Two-Spirit People: Native American Gender Identity, Sexuality, and Spirituality (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997), 52.

N: 7. Jacobs, Thomas, and Lang, Two-Spirit People, 59.

[NOTE: For four or more authors or editors, only include the first author or editor’s name in the Notes.]

N: 12. Jeri A. Sechzer et al., Women and Mental Health (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996), 243.

N: 17. Sechzer et al., Women and Mental Health, 276.

A-D: Jacobs, Sue-Ellen, Wesley Thomas, and Sabine Lang. 1997. Two-Spirit People: Native American Gender Identity, Sexuality, and Spirituality. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

B: Greenberg, Joel, ed. Of Prairie, Woods, and Water: Two Centuries of Chicago Nature Writing. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008.

N: 3. Joel Greenberg, ed., Of Prairie, Woods, and Water: Two Centuries of Chicago Nature Writing (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008), 42.

N: 8. Greenberg, Of Prairie, Woods, and Water, 326-27.

[NOTE: Abbreviation, ed., is omitted in subsequent Notes to the same work.]

A-D: Greenberg, Joel, ed. 2008. Of Prairie, Woods, and Water: Two Centuries of Chicago Nature Writing. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

B: Gould, Glenn. “Streisand as Schwarzkopf.” In The Glenn Gould Reader, edited by Tim Page, 308- 11. New York: Vintage, 1984.

N: 4. Glenn Gould, “Streisand as Schwarzkopf,” in The Glenn Gould Reader, ed. Tim Page (New York: Vintage, 1984), 310. 

N: 9. Gould, “Streisand as Schwarzkopf,” 309.

A-D: Gould, Glenn. 1984. “Streisand as Schwarzkopf.” In The Glenn Gould Reader, edited by Tim Page, 308-11. New York: Vintage.

[NOTE: When no individual author or editor is listed, but rather a government agency, foundation, or company.]

B: University of Chicago Press. The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010.

N: 5. University of Chicago Press, The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010), 620-24.

N: 10. University of Chicago Press, Chicago Manual of Style, 837.

A-D: University of Chicago Press. 2010. The Chicago Manual of Style. 16th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 

[NOTE: The Chicago Manual notes that “a list of works cited need not list newspaper items if these have been documented in the text.” (2010, 740-41).]

B: Borzi, Pat. “Retirement Discussion Begins Anew for Favre.” New York Times, January 25, 2010

B: Frank, Michael. “La Concha Revival: San Juan’s Tropical Modernist Gem Makes a Comeback.” Architectural Digest, August 2009.

N: 6. Pat Borzi, “Retirement Discussion Begins Anew for Favre,” New York Times, January 25, 2010.

N: 11. Borzi. “Retirement Discussion.”

A-D: Kauffman, Stanley. 1989. Review of A Dry White Season (film), directed by Euzhan Palcy. New Republic, October 9, 24-25. 

B: Blair, Walter. “Americanized Comic Braggarts.” Critical Inquiry 4, no. 2 (1977): 331-49.

N: 7. Walter Blair, “Americanized Comic Braggarts,” Critical Inquiry 4, no. 2 (1977): 331-32.

N: 12. Blair, “Americanized Comic Braggarts,” 335.

A-D: Blair, Walter. 1977. “Americanized Comic Braggarts.” Critical Inquiry 4(2): 331-49.

[NOTE: In the Author-Date style reference list, issue numbers may be omitted if pagination is continuous throughout a volume.] 

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