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Learn how to cite resources using the right style for your major!

The information on this handout is derived from the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

Internal Citation

For more examples, see the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition, p. 177 or

Author’s Name in Text

Miele (1993) found that the “the ‘placebo effect,’ which had been verified in previous studies, disappeared when [only the first group’s] behaviors were studied in this manner” (p. 21).

Author’s Name in Reference

She stated, “The ‘placebo effect,’ . . . disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner” (Miele, 1993, p. 21). 


The References list should appear as a separate page at the end of the paper, numbered as though it were a page in the paper. Double-space between and within entries. Entries should be alphabetized by first word of entry. Second and subsequent lines in each entry should be indented five spaces.

For more examples, see the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition or

Reference Examples

[If available, DOI should be listed along with citation information on first page of article.]

Powell, K. J., Hori, S. E., & Leslie, R. (2007). Cognitive impairments in the STOP null mouse model of schizophrenia. Behavioral Neuroscience, 121(5), 826-835. doi: 10.1037/0735.121.5.826

[Undergraduates may want to use this example, listing the database name in place of the DOI]

Schaeding, C. M., Felus, Y. A., & Burtch, R. R. (2006). DEM decisions: Ferris State University team evaluates and utilizes national digital elevation models for orthophotography applications. Point of Beginning, 31(11), 28-33. Retrieved from General OneFile Database.

[Instead of DOI, give the home or entry page URL of the journal.]

Murray, K. T., & Kochanska, G. (2002). Effortful control: Factor structure and relation to externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30(5), 503-514. Retrieved from

[If the article is from a discontinued journal and/or the journal homepage URL is not readily available, give the home or entry page URL for the database.]

Kubie, L. (1947). Psychiatry and the films. Hollywood Quarterly, 2(2), 113-117. Retrieved from

[If creation date or last update is given, replace (n.d.). with date in this format: (2007, July 8). Do not include retrieval dates unless the source material may change over time (e.g., Wikis).]

American Lung Association. (n.d.). Minority lung disease data 2000. Retrieved from http://www.lungusa. .org/pub/minority/lungcancer_00.html

Chou, L., McClintock, R., Moretti, F., & Nix, D. H. (1993). Technology and education: New wine in new bottles: Choosing pasts and imagining educational futures. Retrieved from Columbia University, Institute for Learning Technologies website:

Wallach, J. (2005). King, Martin Luther, Jr. In G. D. Jaynes (Ed.), Encyclopedia of African American society. Retrieved from

Fantina, R. (2005). Ernest Hemingway: Machismo and masochism [ebrary version]. Retrieved from

Rossides, D. W. (2003). Communication, media, and American society. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Helfer, M. E., Keme, R. S., & Drugman, R. D. (1997). The battered child (5th ed.). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Schwartz, J. (1993, May 30). Obesity affects social status. The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4.

Klimoski, R., & Palmer, S. (1993). The ADA and the hiring process in organizations. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 45(2), 10-36.

Raloff, J. (2001, May 12). Lead therapy won't help most kids. Science News, 159, 292.

Grigorenko, E. L. (2001). The invisible danger: The impact of ionizing radiation on cognitive development and functioning. In R. J. Sternberg & E. L. Grigorenko (Eds.), Environmental effects on cognitive abilities (pp. 255-283). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

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